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RFC 5647
AES Galois Counter Mode for the Secure Shell Transport Layer Protocol.
K. Igoe, J. Solinas. August 2009.

 
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Network Working Group K. Igoe Request for Comments: 5647 J. Solinas Category: Informational National Security Agency August 2009 AES Galois Counter Mode for the Secure Shell Transport Layer Protocol Abstract Secure shell (SSH) is a secure remote-login protocol. SSH provides for algorithms that provide authentication, key agreement, confidentiality, and data-integrity services. The purpose of this document is to show how the AES Galois Counter Mode can be used to provide both confidentiality and data integrity to the SSH Transport Layer Protocol. Status of This Memo This memo provides information for the Internet community. It does not specify an Internet standard of any kind. Distribution of this memo is unlimited. Copyright Notice Copyright (c) 2009 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the document authors. All rights reserved. This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal Provisions Relating to IETF Documents in effect on the date of publication of this document (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info). Please review these documents carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect to this document. Igoe & Solinas Informational [Page 1]
RFC 5647 AES-GCM for Secure Shell August 2009 Table of Contents 1. Introduction ....................................................2 2. Requirements Terminology ........................................2 3. Applicability Statement .........................................3 4. Properties of Galois Counter Mode ...............................3 4.1. AES GCM Authenticated Encryption ...........................3 4.2. AES GCM Authenticated Decryption ...........................3 5. Review of Secure Shell ..........................................4 5.1. Key Exchange ...............................................4 5.2. Secure Shell Binary Packets ................................5 6. AES GCM Algorithms for Secure Shell .............................6 6.1. AEAD_AES_128_GCM ...........................................6 6.2. AEAD_AES_256_GCM ...........................................6 6.3. Size of the Authentication Tag .............................6 7. Processing Binary Packets in AES-GCM Secure Shell ...............7 7.1. IV and Counter Management ..................................7 7.2. Formation of the Binary Packet .............................7 7.3. Treatment of the Packet Length Field .......................8 8. Security Considerations .........................................8 8.1. Use of the Packet Sequence Number in the AT ................8 8.2. Non-Encryption of Packet Length ............................8 9. IANA Considerations .............................................9 10. References ....................................................10 10.1. Normative References .....................................10 1. Introduction Galois Counter Mode (GCM) is a block-cipher mode of operation that provides both confidentiality and data-integrity services. GCM uses counter mode to encrypt the data, an operation that can be efficiently pipelined. Further, GCM authentication uses operations that are particularly well suited to efficient implementation in hardware, making it especially appealing for high-speed implementations or for implementations in an efficient and compact circuit. The purpose of this document is to show how GCM with either AES-128 or AES-256 can be integrated into the Secure Shell Transport Layer Protocol [RFC4253]. 2. Requirements Terminology The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT", "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119]. Igoe & Solinas Informational [Page 2]
RFC 5647 AES-GCM for Secure Shell August 2009 3. Applicability Statement Using AES-GCM to provide both confidentiality and data integrity is generally more efficient than using two separate algorithms to provide these security services. 4. Properties of Galois Counter Mode Galois Counter Mode (GCM) is a mode of operation for block ciphers that provides both confidentiality and data integrity. National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Special Publication SP 800 38D [GCM] gives an excellent explanation of Galois Counter Mode. In this document, we shall focus on AES GCM, the use of the Advanced Encryption Algorithm (AES) in Galois Counter Mode. AES-GCM is an example of an "algorithm for authenticated encryption with associated data" (AEAD algorithm) as described in [RFC5116]. 4.1. AES GCM Authenticated Encryption An invocation of AES GCM to perform an authenticated encryption has the following inputs and outputs: GCM Authenticated Encryption Inputs: octet_string PT ; // Plain Text, to be both // authenticated and encrypted octet_string AAD; // Additional Authenticated Data, // authenticated but not encrypted octet_string IV; // Initialization Vector octet_string BK; // Block Cipher Key Outputs: octet_string CT; // Cipher Text octet_string AT; // Authentication Tag Note: in [RFC5116], the IV is called the nonce. For a given block-cipher key BK, it is critical that no IV be used more than once. Section 7.1 addresses how this goal is to be achieved in secure shell. 4.2. AES GCM Authenticated Decryption An invocation of AES GCM to perform an authenticated decryption has the following inputs and outputs: Igoe & Solinas Informational [Page 3]
RFC 5647 AES-GCM for Secure Shell August 2009 GCM Authenticated Decryption Inputs: octet_string CT ; // Cipher text, to be both // authenticated and decrypted octet_string AAD; // Additional Authenticated Data, // authenticated only octet_string AT; // Authentication Tag octet_string IV; // Initialization Vector octet_string BK; // Block Cipher Key Output: Failure_Indicator; // Returned if the authentication tag // is invalid octet_string PT; // Plain Text, returned if and only if // the authentication tag is valid AES-GCM is prohibited from returning any portion of the plaintext until the authentication tag has been validated. Though this feature greatly simplifies the security analysis of any system using AES-GCM, this creates an incompatibility with the requirements of secure shell, as we shall see in Section 7.3. 5. Review of Secure Shell The goal of secure shell is to establish two secure tunnels between a client and a server, one tunnel carrying client-to-server communications and the other carrying server-to-client communications. Each tunnel is encrypted, and a message authentication code is used to ensure data integrity. 5.1. Key Exchange These tunnels are initialized using the secure shell key exchange protocol as described in Section 7 of [RFC4253]. This protocol negotiates a mutually acceptable set of cryptographic algorithms and produces a secret value K and an exchange hash H that are shared by the client and server. The initial value of H is saved for use as the session_id. If AES-GCM is selected as the encryption algorithm for a given tunnel, AES-GCM MUST also be selected as the Message Authentication Code (MAC) algorithm. Conversely, if AES-GCM is selected as the MAC algorithm, it MUST also be selected as the encryption algorithm. As described in Section 7.2 of [RFC4253], a hash-based key derivation function (KDF) is applied to the shared secret value K to generate the required symmetric keys. Each tunnel gets a distinct set of Igoe & Solinas Informational [Page 4]
RFC 5647 AES-GCM for Secure Shell August 2009 symmetric keys. The keys are generated as shown in Figure 1. The sizes of these keys varies depending upon which cryptographic algorithms are being used. Initial IV Client-to-Server HASH( K || H ||"A"|| session_id) Server-to-Client HASH( K || H ||"B"|| session_id) Encryption Key Client-to-Server HASH( K || H ||"C"|| session_id) Server-to-Client HASH( K || H ||"D"|| session_id) Integrity Key Client-to-Server HASH( K || H ||"E"|| session_id) Server-to-Client HASH( K || H ||"F"|| session_id) Figure 1: Key Derivation in Secure Shell As we shall see below, SSH AES-GCM requires a 12-octet Initial IV and an encryption key of either 16 or 32 octets. Because an AEAD algorithm such as AES-GCM uses the encryption key to provide both confidentiality and data integrity, the integrity key is not used with AES-GCM. Either the server or client may at any time request that the secure shell session be rekeyed. The shared secret value K, the exchange hash H, and all the above symmetric keys will be updated. Only the session_id will remain unchanged. 5.2. Secure Shell Binary Packets Upon completion of the key exchange protocol, all further secure shell traffic is parsed into a data structure known as a secure shell binary packet as shown below in Figure 2 (see also Section 6 of [RFC4253]). uint32 packet_length; // 0 <= packet_length < 2^32 byte padding_length; // 4 <= padding_length < 256 byte[n1] payload; // n1 = packet_length-padding_length-1 byte[n2] random_padding; // n2 = padding_length byte[m] mac; // m = mac_length Figure 2: Structure of a Secure Shell Binary Packet The authentication tag produced by AES-GCM authenticated encryption will be placed in the MAC field at the end of the secure shell binary packet. Igoe & Solinas Informational [Page 5]
RFC 5647 AES-GCM for Secure Shell August 2009 6. AES GCM Algorithms for Secure Shell 6.1. AEAD_AES_128_GCM AEAD_AES_128_GCM is specified in Section 5.1 of [RFC5116]. Due to the format of secure shell binary packets, the buffer sizes needed to implement AEAD_AES_128_GCM are smaller than those required in [RFC5116]. Using the notation defined in [RFC5116], the input and output lengths for AEAD_AES_128_GCM in secure shell are as follows: PARAMETER Meaning Value K_LEN AES key length 16 octets P_MAX maximum plaintext length 2^32 - 32 octets A_MAX maximum additional 4 octets authenticated data length N_MIN minimum nonce (IV) length 12 octets N_MAX maximum nonce (IV) length 12 octets C_MAX maximum cipher length 2^32 octets 6.2. AEAD_AES_256_GCM AEAD_AES_256_GCM is specified in Section 5.2 of [RFC5116]. Due to the format of secure shell binary packets, the buffer sizes needed to implement AEAD_AES_256_GCM are smaller than those required in [RFC5116]. Using the notation defined in [RFC5116], the input and output lengths for AEAD_AES_256_GCM in secure shell are as follows: PARAMETER Meaning Value K_LEN AES key length 32 octets P_MAX maximum plaintext length 2^32 - 32 octets A_MAX maximum additional 4 octets authenticated data length N_MIN minimum nonce (IV) length 12 octets N_MAX maximum nonce (IV) length 12 octets C_MAX maximum cipher length 2^32 octets 6.3. Size of the Authentication Tag Both AEAD_AES_128_GCM and AEAD_AES_256_GCM produce a 16-octet Authentication Tag ([RFC5116] calls this a "Message Authentication Code"). Some applications allow use of a truncated version of this tag. This is not allowed in AES-GCM secure shell. All implementations of AES-GCM secure shell MUST use the full 16-octet Authentication Tag. Igoe & Solinas Informational [Page 6]
RFC 5647 AES-GCM for Secure Shell August 2009 7. Processing Binary Packets in AES-GCM Secure Shell 7.1. IV and Counter Management With AES-GCM, the 12-octet IV is broken into two fields: a 4-octet fixed field and an 8-octet invocation counter field. The invocation field is treated as a 64-bit integer and is incremented after each invocation of AES-GCM to process a binary packet. uint32 fixed; // 4 octets uint64 invocation_counter; // 8 octets Figure 3: Structure of an SSH AES-GCM Nonce AES-GCM produces a keystream in blocks of 16-octets that is used to encrypt the plaintext. This keystream is produced by encrypting the following 16-octet data structure: uint32 fixed; // 4 octets uint64 invocation_counter; // 8 octets uint32 block_counter; // 4 octets Figure 4: Structure of an AES Input for SSH AES-GCM The block_counter is initially set to one (1) and incremented as each block of key is produced. The reader is reminded that SSH requires that the data to be encrypted MUST be padded out to a multiple of the block size (16-octets for AES-GCM). 7.2. Formation of the Binary Packet In AES-GCM secure shell, the inputs to the authenticated encryption are: PT (Plain Text) byte padding_length; // 4 <= padding_length < 256 byte[n1] payload; // n1 = packet_length-padding_length-1 byte[n2] random_padding; // n2 = padding_length AAD (Additional Authenticated Data) uint32 packet_length; // 0 <= packet_length < 2^32 IV (Initialization Vector) As described in section 7.1. BK (Block Cipher Key) The appropriate Encryption Key formed during the Key Exchange. Igoe & Solinas Informational [Page 7]
RFC 5647 AES-GCM for Secure Shell August 2009 As required in [RFC4253], the random_padding MUST be at least 4 octets in length but no more than 255 octets. The total length of the PT MUST be a multiple of 16 octets (the block size of AES). The binary packet is the concatenation of the 4-octet packet_length, the cipher text (CT), and the 16-octet authentication tag (AT). 7.3. Treatment of the Packet Length Field Section 6.3 of [RFC4253] requires that the packet length, padding length, payload, and padding fields of each binary packet be encrypted. This presents a problem for SSH AES-GCM because: 1) The tag cannot be verified until we parse the binary packet. 2) The packet cannot be parsed until the packet_length has been decrypted. 3) The packet_length cannot be decrypted until the tag has been verified. When using AES-GCM with secure shell, the packet_length field is to be treated as additional authenticated data, not as plaintext. This violates the requirements of [RFC4253]. The repercussions of this decision are discussed in the following Security Considerations section. 8. Security Considerations The security considerations in [RFC4251] apply. 8.1. Use of the Packet Sequence Number in the AT [RFC4253] requires that the formation of the AT involve the packet sequence_number, a 32-bit value that counts the number of binary packets that have been sent on a given SSH tunnel. Since the sequence_number is, up to an additive constant, just the low 32 bits of the invocation_counter, the presence of the invocation_counter field in the IV ensures that the sequence_number is indeed involved in the formation of the integrity tag, though this involvement differs slightly from the requirements in Section 6.4 of [RFC4253]. 8.2. Non-Encryption of Packet Length As discussed in Section 7.3, there is an incompatibility between GCM's requirement that no plaintext be returned until the authentication tag has been verified, secure shell's requirement that the packet length be encrypted, and the necessity of decrypting the packet length field to locate the authentication tag. This document Igoe & Solinas Informational [Page 8]
RFC 5647 AES-GCM for Secure Shell August 2009 addresses this dilemma by requiring that, in AES-GCM, the packet length field will not be encrypted but will instead be processed as additional authenticated data. In theory, one could argue that encryption of the entire binary packet means that the secure shell dataflow becomes a featureless octet stream. But in practice, the secure shell dataflow will come in bursts, with the length of each burst strongly correlated to the length of the underlying binary packets. Encryption of the packet length does little in and of itself to disguise the length of the underlying binary packets. Secure shell provides two other mechanisms, random padding and SSH_MSG_IGNORE messages, that are far more effective than encrypting the packet length in masking any structure in the underlying plaintext stream that might be revealed by the length of the binary packets. 9. IANA Considerations IANA added the following two entries to the secure shell Encryption Algorithm Names registry described in [RFC4250]: +--------------------+-------------+ | | | | Name | Reference | +--------------------+-------------+ | AEAD_AES_128_GCM | Section 6.1 | | | | | AEAD_AES_256_GCM | Section 6.2 | +--------------------+-------------+ IANA added the following two entries to the secure shell MAC Algorithm Names registry described in [RFC4250]: +--------------------+-------------+ | | | | Name | Reference | +--------------------+-------------+ | AEAD_AES_128_GCM | Section 6.1 | | | | | AEAD_AES_256_GCM | Section 6.2 | +--------------------+-------------+ Igoe & Solinas Informational [Page 9]
RFC 5647 AES-GCM for Secure Shell August 2009 10. References 10.1. Normative References [GCM] Dworkin, M, "Recommendation for Block Cipher Modes of Operation: Galois/Counter Mode (GCM) and GMAC", NIST Special Publication 800-30D, November 2007. [RFC2119] Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997. [RFC4250] Lehtinen, S. and C. Lonvick, Ed., "The Secure Shell (SSH) Protocol Assigned Numbers", RFC 4250, January 2006. [RFC4251] Ylonen, T. and C. Lonvick, Ed., "The Secure Shell (SSH) Protocol Architecture", RFC 4251, January 2006. [RFC4253] Ylonen, T. and C. Lonvick, Ed., "The Secure Shell (SSH) Transport Layer Protocol", RFC 4253, January 2006. [RFC5116] McGrew, D., "An Interface and Algorithms for Authenticated Encryption", RFC 5116, January 2008. Authors' Addresses Kevin M. Igoe NSA/CSS Commercial Solutions Center National Security Agency USA EMail: kmigoe@nsa.gov Jerome A. Solinas National Information Assurance Research Laboratory National Security Agency USA EMail: jasolin@orion.ncsc.mil Igoe & Solinas Informational [Page 10]

   

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